Chapter 18:  The Colonies Become New Nations, 1945 – Present


Section 1:  The Indian Subcontinent Gains Independence (p. 505)

  1. What was the effect on Asians of Japanese victories over Europeans?
  2. Why did Britain begin to question its rule over its colonies?
  3. What event marked the beginning of the end of British rule in India?
  4. Who was the leader of the independence movement in India?
  5. Why might the Congress Party not truly represent all of India?
  6. Why was the Muslim League founded?
  7. Who was Muhammad Ali Jinnah?
  8. Who was Lord Louis Mountbatten?  Why did he fear Hindus and Muslims would never be able to live together in peace?
  9. Define:  Partition.
  10. Why did Gandhi mourn as India achieved independence?
  11. Who was Jawaharlal Nehru?
  12. What was the cause of the conflict between India and Pakistan over Kashmir?
  13. Who was Indira Gandhi?
  14. What conflict developed while Gandhi was in power?  What were the results?
  15. Who was Rajiv Gandhi?
  16. What challenges face India today?
  17. How would you describe Pakistan politically when it first was created?  Explain.
  18. What did East Pakistan become?
  19. What is the cause of the civil war in Sri Lanka?


Section 2:  Southeast Asian Nations Gain Independence (p. 512)

  1. When did the US grant the Philippines its independence?
  2. Why might the United States have bewen interested in maintaining military bases in the Philippines?
  3. Describe Ferdinand Marcos as a president.
  4. Who was Corazon Aquino?
  5. Why are future Philippine presidents limited to six-year terms?
  6. Who was Aung San?
  7. Starting in 1962 what group controlled Burma?
  8. Who was Aung San Suu Kyi?  Why was she put in prison?
  9. Describe Singapore’s current economy.
  10. What do the world’s most competitive economies all have in common?
  11. Who was Sukarno?
  12. How did the British and the Dutch differ in their attitudes towards their colonies?
  13. Why did the Dutch finally agree to grant Indonesia its independence in 1949?
  14. Who was Suharto?  What reason did he give for seizing power?
  15. Describe what life might have been like under Shuharto’s rule in Indonesia.


Section 3:  New Nations in Africa (p. 516)

  1. Why was it difficult to create strong independent nations in Africa?
  2. What was the Negritude movement?
  3. Who was Kwame Nkrumah?
  4. Why might the British have been willing to grant the Gold Coast colony its independence?
  5. Why did Nkrumah’s programs both help and hurt his country?
  6. What two developmentws would force the British to grant Kenyan independence?
  7. How did Kenya change under Daniel arap Moi’s leadership?
  8. What happened in the Congo soon after it gained independence in 1960?
  9. How did Zaire become one of Africa’s richest, to then poorest countries under Mobutu’s rule?
  10. Why did French colonists fight so hard to hold on to their land in Algeria?
  11. What was the goal of the FLN?
  12. What were Ahmed Ben Bella’s plans for Algeria when he became prime minister?
  13. What is the FIS?  Why did it come in conflict with the government?
  14. What was the first European country to enter Africa, and the last to leave?
  15. What was the main cause of civil war in Angola once it gained independence?


Section 4:  Conflicts in the Middle East (p. 521)

  1. Where is the conflict between the Jews and Arabs rooted?
  2. What was the desire of the Zionists?
  3. Balfour (quote p521) approved the establishment of a home for Jews in Palestine with what qualifications?
  4. How did the British view the terms of the Balfour Declarations?  Why
  5. What recommendation did the UN make for Palestine?
  6. How did the Islamic countries and Palestinians view the UN plan?  Why?
  7. How did the Jews feel about the plan?
  8. What gave the Jews some sympathy for an independent nations of their own?
  9. What happened the day after Israel claimed itself a state?
  10. What happened to the Palestinian state the UN had set aside for Palestinians?
  11. What started the Suez Crisis?
  12. What were the results of the Six Day War?
  13. What were some of the effects of the Arab-Israeli conflicts?
  14. What was the significance of the Camp David Accords?
  15. Why was Anwar Sadat assassinated?
  16. What is the PLO?  Who is its leader?
  17. What is the intifada?
  18. Political commentators have said that the Arab-Israeli conflict represents the struggle not of right against wrong, but of right against right.  Do you agree or disagree?  Explain.


  1. Following independence, many former colonies went through revolutions.  They often experienced assassinations, rigged elections, and massacres.  Keep in mind what you learned about revolutions in this chapter and the revolutions are meant to bring about change.  Do you think there should be a limit to the methods revolutionaries employ?  Explain your opinion.