25,000 to 10,000 B.C.: The cave paintings of Pinal, Pena de Candamo, El Pendal, Pasiega, Ribadesella and Altamira express the existence of a fine culture in the Magdalenian period.
1,100 B.C.: The Phoenicians found Gadir or Gades (Cadiz), Baria Adra, Almunecar and Malaga.
1,000 B.C.: Civilization of the Tartessians. The Celts begin to arrive from across the Pyrenees.
7th century B.C.: The Greeks found Hemeroscopiaon and Manake.
6th century B.C.: Emporio (Ampurias) and Rhodaes (Rosas) founded.
237 B.C.: Hamilcar takes the S. and SE. and founds Akra Leuke (Alicante). Hasdrubal founds Cartago Nova (Cartagena)
218 to 201 B.C.: Hannibal takes Saguntum (Punic War). The Carthaginians invade Italy. Scipio lands in Spain and defeats Hasdrubal in Tarraco (Tarragona), Illipa (Alcala del Rio) and Gadir. Rome annexes the country and divides it into two provinces: Hispanis Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.
209 B.C.: Decline of Hannibal's army in Italy and beginning of the great Roman conquest of Spain. Rome annexes the country and divides it into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.
143 to 139 B.C.: Viriatus and the Lusitanians fight the Roman legions.
133 B.C.: The inhabitants of Numantia prefer to die in the flames of their city rather than surrender to Scipio Aemilianus.
The Romans pacify the Peninsula once and for all and divide it
into three provinces: Tarraconense, Baetica and Lusitania. The
Roman presence in Hispania lasted for seven centuries during which
the basic frontiers of the Peninsula in relation to other European
countries were shaped. However the Romans did not only bequeath
a territorial administration, but also left a legacy of social
and cultural characters such as the family, language, religion,
law and municipal government, the assimilation of which definitively
placed the Peninsula within the Greco-Latin and later the
98 A.D.: Beginning of rule of Trajan, the first Roman emperor of Spanish origin.
264 A.D.: Franks and suevi invade the country and temporarily occupy Tarragona.
411 A.D.: The Barbarian tribes sign an alliance with Rome, which enables them to establish military colonies within the Empire.
568-586.: The Visigoth king Leovigild expels the imperial civil servants and attempts to unify the Peninsula. The end of the Roman empire in Spain.
718: Pelayo, a noble Visigoth who has been elected king, defeats the Muslim Army in Alcama in the neighborhood of Covadonga, thus beginning the Christian Re-conquest of Spain.
750: The Christians, under Alfonso I, occupy Galicia, which had been abandoned by revolting Berber troops.
778: The army of Charlemagne suffers the defeat of Roncesvalles at the hands of the Vascons; death of Roland.
791 to 842: Alfonso II conquers a number of strongholds and settles the lands south of the river Duero.
873 to 898: Wilfredo the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, sets up a Christian kingdom with a certain degree of independence from the Frankish kings.
905 to 926: Sancho I Garces creates a Basque kingdom centered on Navarre.
930 to 950: Ramiro II, king of Leon, defeats Abd al-Rahman III at Simancas, Osma and Talavera.
950 to 951: Count Fernan Gonzalez lays the foundations for the independence of Castile.
981: Ramiro III is defeated by Almansur at Rueda and is obliged to pay tribute to the Caliph of Cordova.
999 to 1018: Alfonso V of Leon reconstructs his kingdoms.
1000 to 1033: Sancho III of Navarre subdues the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza, takes possession of the County of Castile and makes an arrangement with Bermudo III of Leon with the idea of taking away his dominions from him and proclaiming himself as emperor. However, on his death, he leaves Navarre to his son Garcia III, Castile to Fernando I, and Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza to Ramiro I.
1035 to 1063: Fernando I conquers Coimbra and obliges the Muslims of Toledo, Seville and Badajoz to pay him tribute. Before his death, he shares out his territories between his sons: Castile goes to Sancho II and Leon to Alfonso VI.
1065 to 1109: Alfonso VI unites the two kingdoms under his sceptre and takes Toledo.
1086: The Christian advance obliges the Muslim kings of Granada, Seville and Badajoz to call to their aid the Almoravides.
1102: The followers of the Cid leave Valencia and the African Muslims occupy the Peninsula as far as Saragossa (Zaragoza).
1118: Alfonso I of Aragon conquers Saragossa.
1135: Alfonso VII of Leon restores the prestige of the Leonese monarchy and is proclaimed emperor.
1151: The Almohades, another African dynasty who have displaced the Almoravides, retake Almaria.
1162: Alfonso II, son of Petronila and Ramon Berenguer IV, unites in his person the kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona.
1195: The Almohades defeat the Castillians at Alarcos.
1212: Culmination of the Re-conquest. Alfonso VIII of Castile, helped by Sancho VIII of Navarre, Pedro II of Aragon and some troops from Portugal and Leon, is victorious in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.
1229: Jaime I of Aragon, the Conqueror, reconquers Marllorca.
1230: Alfonso IX of Leon advances along the River Guadiana, takes Merida and Badajoz and opens up the way for the conquest of Seville.
1217 to 1252: Fernando III, king of Castile and Leon, conquers Cordova, Murcia, Jaen and Seville. Granada remains as the sole independent Muslim kingdom.
1252 to 1284: Alfonso X the Wise continues the Re-conquest and is obliged to face the 'Mudejar' revolts of Andalusia and Murcia. He seeks election as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1257. Alfonso X drafts the 'Fuero de las Leyes', the forerunner of the 'Siete Partidas'.
1284: An assembly of nobles, prelates and citizens depose Alfonso X and hand over power to his son Sancho IV.
1309: Fernando IV takes Gibraltar.
1312 to 1350: Alfonso XI fights the kingdom of Granada for 25 years and in 1340 wins the battle of Rio Salado.
1369: Pedro I the Cruel is murdered in Montiel by his half brother Enrique de Trastamara, who then governs as Enrique II.
1385: The Portuguese defeat the Castilians in Aljubarrota.
1464: Enrique IV of Castile names as heir to the throne his sister, the future Isabel I, the Catholic, and disinherits his daughter Juana, nicknamed 'La Beltraneja'.
1469: Isabel I of Castile and Fernando II of Aragon are married, thus consummating the unity of Spain.
1492: The Catholic Monarchs, Isabel and Fernando, complete the Re-conquest by taking Granada (January 2nd), taking advantage of the rivalry of the last Muslim governors of Spain. Discovery of America (October 12th).
1808 to 1813: The Spanish people rise against French domination (May 2nd 1808) and with English help defeat Napoleon.
1814 to 1833: During the reign of Fernando VII, the Spanish colonies of America gain their independence, except Cuba and Puerto Rico.
1833 to 1868: On the death of Ferdinand VII, the rise to power of Isabel II brings about the first Carlist War as the Salic law is abolished.
1841 to 1843: General Espartero is proclaimed regent of the kingdom.
1843: General Narvaez deposes General Espartero.
1854: Leopoldo O'Donnell rebels against Narvaez and alternates with him as Prime Minister.
1868: The revolution which overthrows Isabel II is headed by Generals Serrano and Prim.
1870: Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta, is elected king of Spain. General Prim is assassinated.
1873: Amadeo I abdicates and the Cortes proclaim a republic.
1873 to 1874: The First Republic.- The Republic has to deal with war in Cuba, the third Carlist war and the cantonalist rising of the South and South East of the country. After the presidencies of the Republic by Figueras, Pi y Margall, Salmeron and Castelar, the 'pronunciamiento' of General Pavia dissolves the Cortes and establishes the government of General Serrano.
1874: The Restoration.- General Martinez Campos rises in Sagunto and proclaims the restoration of the Bourbons (Borbones) under Alfonso XII.
1876 to 1878: The defeat of Carlism and the peace of El Zanjon, which brings to an end the ten year war in Cuba, makes it possible to set up a stable Government.
1885 to 1886: Alfonso XII dies and is succeeded by his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII, under the regency of his mother, Maria Cristina de Habsburgo y Lorena.
1895: The Cuban war of independence breaks up.
1898: The war with the United States puts an end to the remains of the Spanish colonial empire: Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines are turned over to the victors.